Month: October 2020

How facial recognition works

How facial recognition works
You might be good at recognizing faces. You probably find it a cinch to identify the face of a family member, friend, or acquaintance. You’re familiar with their facial features — their eyes, nose, mouth — and how they come together.

That’s how a facial recognition system works, but on a grand, algorithmic scale. Where you see a face, recognition technology sees data. That data can be stored and accessed. For instance, half of all American adults have their images stored in one or more facial-recognition databases that law enforcement agencies can search, according to a Georgetown University study.

So how does facial recognition work? Technologies vary, but here are the basic steps:

Step 1. A picture of your face is captured from a photo or video. Your face might appear alone or in a crowd. Your image may show you looking straight ahead or nearly in profile.

Step 2. Facial recognition software reads the geometry of your face. Key factors include the distance between your eyes and the distance from forehead to chin. The software identifies facial landmarks — one system identifies 68 of them — that are key to distinguishing your face. The result: your facial signature.

Step 3. Your facial signature — a mathematical formula — is compared to a database of known faces.

Step 4. A determination is made. Your faceprint may match that of an image in a facial recognition system database.

In general, that’s how facial recognition works, but who uses it?

Facial recognition system

facial recognition system is a technology capable of matching a human face from a digital image or a video frame against a database of faces. Researchers are currently developing multiple methods in which facial recognition systems work. The most advanced face recognition method, which is also employed to authenticateusers through ID verification services, works by pinpointing and measuring facial features from a given image.

While initially a form of computer application, facial recognition systems have seen wider uses in recent times on smartphones and in other forms of technology, such as robotics. Because computerized facial recognition involves the measurement of a human’s physiological characteristics facial recognition systems are categorised as biometrics. Although the accuracy of facial recognition systems as a biometric technology is lower than iris recognition and fingerprint recognition, it is widely adopted due to its contactless and non-invasive process. Facial recognition systems have been deployed in advanced human-computer interactionvideo surveillance and automatic indexing of images. Techniques for face recognition While humans can recognize faces without much effort, facial recognition is a challenging pattern recognition problem in computing. Facial recognition systems attempt to identify a human face, which is three-dimensional and changes in appearance with lighting and facial expression, based on its two-dimensional image. To accomplish this computational task, facial recognition systems perform four steps. First face detection is used to segment the face from the image background. In the second step the segmented face image is aligned to account for face pose, image size and photographic properties, such as illumination and grayscale. The purpose of the alignment process is to enable the accurate localization of facial features in the third step, the facial feature extraction. Features such as eyes, nose and mouth are pinpointed and measured in the image to represent the face. The so established feature vector of the face is then, in the fourth step, matched against a database of faces.

Access control system connection mode and several networking modes

With the deepening of the degree of electronic intelligence in society, the access control systems we see now can be divided into: password access control systems, swipe card access control systems, and biometric access control systems based on different input devices, media and methods.

1. Integrated access control, also called independent access control

We started from the most primitive. This is also the most used office in some office buildings and the most affordable and cheap one. It is an access control machine, electromagnetic lock, door opening button, and power supply, which are combined to form a whole. It is installed on the gate to realize the access management function. If you need a larger function, you need to add a set of software. The premise is to realize the digitalization, which means that it needs to be connected to the Internet and establish an independent intranet. The following picture shows the integrated access control network diagram

     Advantages: The integrated access control is the first-level product of access control. It is simple and convenient to network, install, and debug. It is an essential system for small offices. The integrated access control has the following functions: password to open the door, swipe card to open the door, and button to open the door.

Disadvantages: Cannot realize network remote management, access control cards can only be authorized locally, and remote access control cards cannot be authorized. The total amount of access control cards is limited, and most of them can only store 2000 access control card information

  • RS485 access control mode

 Through the RS485 communication bus (must use a twisted pair or a set of network cables), the controller is connected to the RS485 converter (hub) by hand in series, and then connected to the computer serial port to achieve One computer (software) manages and communicates with multiple controllers.                                                   

 The theoretical distance between the farthest controller and the computer is 1200 meters. It is recommended that the customer control it within 800 meters, and the best results can be controlled within 300 meters. If the distance is too long, you can purchase a 485 repeater (extender) (please buy from a professional converter manufacturer. Whether the repeater is placed in the middle of the bus or the beginning, please refer to the instructions of the relevant manufacturer.) The repeater can theoretically be extended to 3000 meters

  • TCP/IP communication mode

The TCP/IP communication protocol is the current universal standard protocol for computer networks. It has the advantages of fast transmission speed, international standards, and good compatibility.

 The access method of the controller is the same as that of the HUB and computer network card of the local area network.

Communication distance:

 In a small local area network, the communication distance can be extended through the cascading of HUB, the communication distance of each level is up to 100 meters, and multiple levels can be cascaded. Moreover, large-scale local area networks can be extended to a long distance or even many kilometers through various methods such as optical fiber and wireless, and even across cities, it can also be connected to thousands of kilometers through the Internet. Number of loads: There is no limit in theory, HUB can be cascaded, and thousands of controllers can be networked without problems.

Communication speed:

The communication speed is fast. The communication speed of TCP/IP products is ten times or even dozens of times that of RS485 RS232 controllers. Up to 100 or even hundreds of upload permissions or download records per second. The following figure shows the networking mode of the network access control system

In summary, now is the era of the Internet. 485 bus-controlled access control has been withdrawn from the stage of history. The network access control system is the mainstream of the society. The additional functions of the network access control are more complete, making life more intelligent and faster. Therefore, weak current equipment is constantly being updated, moving towards more intelligent equipment and realizing the Internet of Everything

Security integration

Driven by the advancement of science and technology and people’s demand for mobile communication services, building access control intercom systems are being applied to communities. So how does the high-intelligence access control realize the integration of security and protection? What aspects of the integration of security and protection should be paid attention to? Is it necessary to focus on customer needs? Finally, what are the prospective advantages of placement integration in smart access control? Here are the answers for readers one by one.

Alarm and event information management

The integrated security system based on the access control system mainly includes two parts: a front-end controller and a management platform. This way of integration based on the access control system is that the main functions served by the overall system are biased towards access control and entrance and exit management. “When an event occurs, the alarm front-end system must first detect the target. After the alarm information is transmitted back to the management center, it can be viewed in real time by calling the video image. However, in this series of reactions, the alarm system is only An early warning mechanism, while the video system realizes review and review, only the access control system can truly control the on-site conditions.

Of course, once an event occurs, all alarm events of the system (access control, alarm, patrol, etc.) can be linked to the hard disk recording system of the TV monitoring system and the matrix controller to respond accordingly. For example, when a door in the access control system is opened illegally, the integrated system will control the matrix controller of the TV monitoring system to switch the camera image corresponding to this door to the main screen of the TV monitoring system display screen and the management platform of the integrated system, and go Start the hard disk video recorder to record. If the camera has a PTZ, you can also control the PTZ to rotate to the preset position on the management platform.

At the same time, the system also has the function of triggering the execution of script programs by alarm events, which can associate some alarm events with DVR control according to user needs, for example, when an alarm event starts, trigger DVR to start recording and perform remote control of DVR Program, you can also query and retrieve video information as required.

In addition, you can view the live video at the time through the alarm event record of the access control system. The matrix control module of the system can also directly control the selected camera, and the control protocol of the matrix controller such as PELCO, PHILIPS, PANASONIC, etc. is usually built-in to realize the Control of other brands’ matrix.

Integration with other software

For security system integration, it is not only the integration between the hardware, but also the integration with other software (such as: fire alarm, building automation, information release, elevator control, consumer system, daily management, etc.). Integration depends on the degree of protocol openness of various hardware devices, that is, whether these hardware devices provide interfaces and protocols.

Only when the hardware provides a unified interface (SDK or API function), the software can manage and control the hardware uniformly through the interface, and grasp the working status of the hardware from time to time. Of course, the software should also provide linkage strategies and pre-plan mechanisms. At the same time, the software integration of the system should also support hierarchical management. For example, the software integration in the rail transit system includes the software integration of the operation management center and the station-level software integration.

However, different hardware provides different interfaces, which requires us to modularize the software, and we use a module for each hardware to manage it. Because of different projects, the front-end equipment used is not exactly the same. It is impossible to take a project, it is necessary to develop or purchase a set of software. Just like WINDOWS is an operating system platform software, you can install and use it no matter what hardware configuration your PC has, because different hardware has corresponding drivers for WINDOWS. Change an accessory, just reinstall the corresponding driver. Therefore, security integrated software will also gradually realize ‘platform’ and ‘module’.

The interface provided by the hardware should be able to provide functions such as status access, device operation, system configuration, etc., through the TCP/IP protocol, the unified management of various hardware and the realization of hardware functions to achieve system integration. However, in the current Chinese security market, many manufacturers are unwilling to disclose their product agreements in order to ensure their market share. Therefore, the compatibility between brand products is poor and the integration level is relatively low.

Understand end user needs

In addition to understanding the key technologies of integration, integrators and engineers also need to truly understand the actual needs of end users. At present, many end users blindly pursue multiple and complete integration functions, but lack understanding of system integration, which often results in waste of system functions. For example, many building developers pay too much attention to the appearance and price of the system, and often only pay attention to the partial effect, and do not consider whether the entire system is reasonable. It can be said that technology is often ignored for economic benefits. In addition, some developers think that having a brand is a good project, and some users simply do not combine their actual needs, blindly pursuing the powerful and complex functions of the system, thinking that the bigger the system, the better. In fact, such integrated systems are often put aside because they are either impractical, unusable, or too complex in function.

Therefore, for end users, when making system planning, they should first understand their actual needs and the effect of system integration. For example, which subsystems need to be integrated in the engineering project? If it is an access control system, what degree of integration must be achieved, how to link with other systems (alarm system, access control system), etc., all of which need to be contacted by the engineering company or Integrators communicate to avoid deviations between their own needs and the integrated results.

In addition, according to industry insiders, the current demand in China’s security integration market is experiencing a period of restlessness. Since many system integrators are transformed from engineering companies or network operators, the technical level of each integrator is also uneven. Most of the system integration construction parties do not have their own technical strength, and the overall planning and potential of the system The function mining is not enough to optimize the system, which is only limited to installation and debugging; some integrators fully cater to some unreasonable needs of customers in order to expand their business, making “system integration” seriously distorted or misunderstood.

Therefore, whether it is a security manufacturer, a system integrator, or an engineering company involved in a system integration project, it is necessary to continuously strengthen its own understanding and understanding of system integration and improve the level of integration technology in order to select a more suitable platform for customers to achieve The effect the customer expects to achieve.

What is an access control system?

What is an access control system? The concept of the original access control system has been in our lives. For example, we have installed doors and locks in every household. When the family members go home, they can use the key to open the door and enter. However, when outsiders come, people in the house need to hear the sound of knocking on the door. Judge whether to open the door by sound and past experience.

Access control system, also known as access management control system and channel management system, is a new modern intelligent management system. It is an effective measure to solve the security management of the entrances and exits of important departments. Applicable to various scenarios, such as banks, hotels, parking lot management, computer rooms, prisons, express cabinets, office rooms, intelligent communities, factories, etc.

With the deepening of the electronic intelligence of society, the access control systems we see now can be divided into: password access control systems, card access control systems, biometric access control systems, mobile APP access control systems based on different input device media and methods.

Password access control system: By entering the password, the system judges that the password is correct and the door is opened. Advantages: Just remember the password. Simple. Disadvantages: slow speed and poor security. Trend: There are fewer and fewer occasions for password access control. It is used in occasions with low safety requirements, low cost and infrequent use. For example: safe.

Card access control system: According to the type of card, it is divided into contact card access control system (magnetic stripe card, barcode card, chip card) and non-contact card (also called proximity card radio frequency card) access control system. The contact card access control system is mainly used in bank card related In occasions, non-contact IC cards are widely used due to their high durability, good cost performance, and fast reading speed. The disadvantage is that they are easy to be copied. (Note: Ordinary IC/ID cards are easy to be copied, CPU cards are also called encryption cards, which are not easy to be copied, but the cost is higher)

Biometric access control system: An access control system that recognizes identities according to different human biological characteristics. Mainly include: fingerprint access control system, palm profile access control system, iris access control system, face recognition access control system. Advantages: no need to carry media such as cards, less chance of repetition, not easy to be copied, high security, disadvantages: high cost. The comparison speed is slow, which is not conducive to occasions with too many people. The biological characteristics of the human body will change with the environment and time, and the recognition rate is low. Although the biometric access control system is advanced and safe, the scope of application is limited. It is only applied in a few areas such as a small number of people, high security requirements, and high costs.

Mobile APP access control system: remotely open the door by installing a mobile APP. There are currently the following ways to open the door with a mobile phone: mobile phone QR code to open the door, smart phone APP to open the door, mobile phone NFC to open the door, mobile Bluetooth to open the door, mobile phone WeChat applet to open the door. Mobile phones are playing an increasingly important role in our lives. Due to their advantages such as convenience, low cost, fast reading speed, and high security, they are bound to become the mainstream of future access control systems.

Classification of video door phone(VDP)

Video door phone can be classified two possible classification :

1. Security layers :

a. Level 1 security – This is security layer added by VDP system at the community entrance. This layer is given to the guard who will directly verify the entry of a visitor to the community. Such systems are only at a community level.

b. Level 2 Security : This is also known as the lobby security – This is to get access to your lobby of the apartment in such a case the visitor will have to dial the number of the flat and then the flat owner allows the access to a visitor from the lobby entrance itself.

c. Level 3 security : In this case the visitor communicates with the outdoor camera in front of house door or villa gate.


2. Technologies & classification :

a. Standalone – A standalone VDP is a device used in villas or by individual home owners.

Types of technology of standalone VDP –

i. Analog VDP – It is an analog display and camera.

ii. Connected digital VDP – This is a digital LCD display with Digital camera usually with image capture and video capturing ability when the bell is pressed. In this case normally some additional camera integration is also allowed.

iii. Wireless video door bell(VDB) : A camera units which gets connected to interned or router and allows communication with ones mobile or tablet top communicate with the visitor.


b. Multi-apartment- This is a solution where there is an mass housing scenario.

i. Analog Multi-apartment systems – This is an Analog VDP providing 3 tier security.

ii. IP VDP Multi-apartment system – This is IP VDP which is 3 tier security and integration with BMS (Building management system ), Security systems like intrusion , CCTV building security and in most cases even home automation.

Video door-phone

Video door-phone (also known as video door entry or video intercom) is a stand-alone intercom system used to manage calls made at the entrance to a building (residential complex, detached family home, workplace, etc.) with access controlled by audiovisual communication between the inside and outside. The main feature of video door entry is that it enables the person indoors to identify the visitor and, if (and only if) they wish, engage in conversation and/or open the door to allow access to the person calling.

Video door entry consists of both outside and indoor elements: an outdoor panel on the outside, an electronic lock release and an indoor monitor. The outdoor panel or street panel is installed beside the entrance door or gateway and incorporates different elements ready for use in any climate conditions: one or several pushbuttons to make the call (usually one per home or apartment), a micro camera adapted for night vision to capture the image of the caller, a microphone to pick up their voice and a speaker to reproduce the voice of the occupant indoors. A video door entry panel may include push buttons to call the homes or offices and a camera to capture the street scene. The video entry monitor allows the occupant to see who has called, talk to the visitor and open the door. Installed indoors, the monitor consists of a screen showing the image of the person calling, a microphone and earpiece for conversation and a pushbutton to trigger the door lock release. The communication set up is full duplex. The electric door release is a device installed in the door lock and operated from inside the building to lift the latch and clear the way for the visitor.

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